CAT-10 Flight: Class B Transitions

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Description

Conduct a flight from Torrance Airport (KTOA) to Van Nuys Airport (KVNY) then a second flight from Van Nuys Airport (KVNY) to Santa Ana-John Wayne Airport (KSNA) utilizing multiple transitions through the Los Angeles Class Bravo Airspace.

Learning objectives

  • Review radio communications when operating at Class D and C airports.
  • Review basic VFR navigation skills.
  • Review Class B Airspace
  • Learn how to fly VFR Class B Transitions

Flying the Rating

To successfully complete this rating you must accomplish the following tasks:

  • Fly from KTOA to KVNY via the Mini-Route KLAX Class B transition.
  • Immediately after arriving at KVNY fly from KVNY to KSNA via the Coastal Route KLAX Class B Transition..
  • Inform ATC on initial contact at KTOA AND KVNY that you are performing the CAT-10 Rating.
  • Meet the CAT Ratings Practical Test Standards

Airspace Review

Use caution for the KHHR Delta when departing KTOA heading towards KLAX. Use caution for the outer shelf of the Class C airspace approaching KVNY when exiting the SMO Class D after the miniroute transition. The cruise altitude for the miniroute (2500) but in case you do decide to climb, Sepulvada Pass denotes the approximate edge of the KBUR Class C. Be sure to be below 3000 by that point to remain below the Class C unless you are now talking to Socal Approach.

Class B Airspace

Class B airspace is the most restrictive airspace that VFR aircraft has access to and is located around the busiest airports in the country.

Aircraft operating in Class B airspace must obtain an ATC clearance prior to entering the airspace. Additionally, all aircraft operating in Class B airspace or within 30 NM of the primary Class B airspace must have and use a mode C transponder.

VFR Transitions

VFR transitions are coordinated routes through Class B airspace that allow VFR aircraft to easily transition the airspace. VFR transitions are published on VFR terminal area charts.

As VFR transitions go through Class B airspace they require you to be in contact with ATC and to obtain a clearance. Note that unlike a flyway a transition consists of a very specific route to fly and altitude to maintain.

For example for the miniroute you will fly the Santa Monica 128 radial inbound to Santa Monica VOR at 2500’.

Normally once established on a VFR transition you will not be able to “leave” the transition early, you will need to fly the entire transition before resuming your planned flight.

The miniroute transition graphic is provided above, but you will need to reference the LAX TAC to obtain the Coastal Route chart required for KVNY-KSNA leg.

Class B Services

While operating within Class B airspace all aircraft are provided Class B services by the local approach control.

Class B services consist of traffic advisories, sequencing into the Class B airport, and separation between VFR and IFR aircraft (and certain larger VFR aircraft) operating in the airspace. All aircraft are automatically provided this service. Unlike with Class C airspace generally you cannot refuse Class B services.

Communications Review

In order to request a VFR transition you should contact the frequency listed for the transition on the VFR terminal chart.

When calling ATC state your callsign, aircraft type, location, altitude, and transition you are requesting.

ATC will provide a squawk code and once radar identified provide you a clearance through the Class B airspace via the requested transition.

Note that in some cases ATC will not be able to accommodate this request, in this case you must remain clear of the airspace and find an alternate way to your destination (consider a VFR flyway).

Be prepared, this flight involves a large number of frequency changes in a short period of time (Torrance tower, Hawthorne Tower, LAX Tower, Santa Monica Tower in just a few minutes). Frequency changes are easy to do with real radios but can be cumbersome in a simulator. Therefore, consider pre-dialing the next expected frequency in the standby slot of the radio rather than trying to dial it in when instructed by ATC. Also, there may be some variability on this flight from KSMO to KVNY. The tower controller may hand you off to Socal, or might drop your radar services and say “frequency change approved” as you exit the Delta. The transcript below assumes the latter.

Transcript

Leg 1 – TOA-VNY

N123AB: “Torrance ground, Cessna 123AB, transient parking, north departure for the miniroute, ready to taxi with uniform.”

Torrance Ground: “Cessna 123AB, Torrance Ground, runway 29 right taxi via alpha, juliet.”

N123AB: “Runway 29 right, taxi via alpha, juliet”

When ready for departure:

N123AB: “Torrance tower, Cessna 123AB, holding short runway 29 right.”

Torrance Tower: “Cessna 123AB, Torrance Tower, right crosswind departure approved, runway 29 right, cleared for takeoff.”

N123AB: “Cleared for takeoff runway 29 right, right crosswind departure.”

Once clear of the Torrance airspace you can contact Hawthorne tower per the terminal chart in order to conduct the miniroute transition. Make sure you remain clear of the Hawthorne Class D airspace until you have established two way radio communication with Hawthorne tower. Consider requesting an early frequency change prior to leaving the airspace, or if the planets are aligned, the controller will proactively issue the early frequency change, knowing that you’re doing the miniroute.

N123AB: “Hawthorne Tower, Cessna 123AB, Cessna Skyhawk, five mile south at 2500, request northbound miniroute.”

Hawthorne Tower: “Cessna 123AB, Hawthorne Tower, squawk 7110, northbound transition approved for the miniroute, remain clear of the Los Angeles Bravo airspace until advised by Los Angeles Tower.”

N123AB: “Squawk 7110, remain clear of the Bravo airspace, join the miniroute northbound.”

Hawthorne Tower: “Cessna 123AB, contact Los Angeles Tower on 119.8.”

N123AB: “Contact 119.8, Cessna 123AB.”

Switch to 119.8. Remember to not enter the Class B airspace as you haven’t been cleared to enter yet.

N123AB: “Los Angeles Tower, Cessna 123AB, two miles south, 2500, miniroute northbound.”

Los Angeles Tower: “Cessna 123AB, Los Angeles Tower, ident.”

N123AB: “Identing, Cessna 123AB.”

Los Angeles Tower: “Cessna 123AB, radar contact 1 mile South of Los Angeles, Cleared through the Los Angeles Bravo airspace via the miniroute northbound, maintain VFR at 2500, report overhead, Los Angeles altimeter 29.95.”

N123AB: “Cleared through the bravo airspace via the miniroute northbound, maintain 2500, report overhead.”

When overhead.

N123AB: “Overhead, Cessna 123AB.”

ATC is required to advise you when you are exiting Bravo airspace. As it happens, the LAX Bravo has an hourglass figure and we are at the narrowest point, so the edge of the airspace arrives quickly.

Los Angeles Tower: “Cessna 123AB, leaving the Los Angeles class bravo airspace, contact Santa Monica Tower, 120.10.”

N123AB: “Santa Monica Tower, Cessna 123AB, 3 miles south, request northbound transition to Van Nuys.”

Santa Monica Tower: “Cessna 123AB, Santa Monica Tower, northbound transition approved, squawk VFR, Santa Monica Altimeter 29.94.”

N123AB: “Northbound transition approved, Cessna 123AB.”

When clear of the Santa Monica Airspace, obtain the Van Nuys ATIS and contact Van Nuys Tower.

N123AB: “Van Nuys Tower, Cessna 123AB, 7 miles south, request full stop with information hotel.”

Van Nuys Tower: “Cessna 123AB, Van Nuys Tower, enter right downwind runway 16 right, report midfield downwind.”

When on midfield right downwind:

N123AB: “Midfield right downwind Cessna 123AB”

Van Nuys Tower: “Cessna 123AB, runway 16 right cleared to land.”

N123AB: “Cleared to land, runway 16 right, Cessna 123AB.”

When clear of the runway.

Van Nuys Tower: “Cessna 123AB, contact ground 121.7.”

N123AB: “Contact ground, Cessna 123AB.”

After switching to ground frequency.

N123AB: “Van Nuys Ground, Cessna 123AB, clear of runway 16 right at golf, taxi to transient parking.”

Van Nuys Ground: “Cessna 123AB, Van Nuys Ground, taxi to parking via alpha.”

N123AB: “Taxi to parking via alpha, Cessna 123AB.”

Leg 2: VNYSNA

When ready for departure to John Wayne.

N123AB: “Van Nuys Clearance Delivery, Cessna 123AB, south departure for the coastal route with India.”

Van Nuys Clearance Delivery: “Cessna 123AB, Van Nuys Clearance Delivery, departure frequency 134.2, squawk 7110.”

N123AB: “Departure frequency, 134.2, squawk 7110.”

Van Nuys Clearance Delivery: “Cessna 123AB, read back correct.”

When ready for taxi.

N123AB: “Van Nuys Ground, Cessna 123AB, transient parking, ready to taxi.”

Van Nuys Ground: “Cessna 123AB, Van Nuys Ground, runway 16 right taxi via bravo, charlie.”

N123AB: “Runway 16 right, taxi via bravo, charlie.”

When ready for departure:

N123AB: “Van Nuys tower, Cessna 123AB, holding short runway 16 right.”

Van Nuys Tower: “Cessna 123AB, Van Nuys Tower, straight out departure approved, runway 16 right, cleared for takeoff.”

N123AB: “Cleared for takeoff runway 16 right, straight out departure.”

Van Nuys Tower: “Cessna 123AB, contact departure.”

N123AB: “Contact departure, Cessna 123AB.”

N123AB: “SOCAL Departure, Cessna 123AB, 2000 climbing 5500.”

SOCAL Approach: “Cessna 123AB, SOCAL Approach, radar contact, maintain VFR at 5500, Burbank altimeter 29.87.”

N123AB: “VFR at 5500, altimeter 29.87, Cessna 123AB.”

SOCAL Approach: “Cessna 123AB, Cleared through the Los Angeles Bravo airspace via the coastal route southbound.”

N123AB: “Cleared through the Class Bravo Airspace via the Coastal route.”

SOCAL Approach: “Cessna 123AB, contact SOCAL approach on 134.9.”

N123AB: “Contact SOCAL Approach on 134.9, Cessna 123AB.”

N123AB: “SOCAL Approach, Cessna 123AB, level 5500.”

SOCAL Approach: “Cessna 123AB, SOCAL Approach, Los Angeles Altimeter 29.82.”

N123AB: “Altimeter 29.82, Cessna 123AB.”

SOCAL Approach: “Cessna 123AB, contact SOCAL Approach on 127.2.”

N123AB: “Contact SOCAL Approach on 127.2.”

By this time you will be approaching John Wayne airport, so it’s a good time to get the ATIS and let approach know you will be landing at John Wayne.

N123AB: “SOCAL Approach, Cessna 123AB, level 5500, landing John Wayne with information x-ray.”

SOCAL Approach: “Cessna 123AB, SOCAL Approach, John Wayne altimeter 29.79.”

N123AB: “Altimeter 29.79, Cessna 123AB.”

SOCAL Approach: “Cessna 123AB, Clear of the Los Angeles Bravo Airspace, VFR descent approved, report over the Hunington Beach Pier.”

N123AB: “Descent approved, report over Huntington Beach Pier, Cessna 123AB.”

Hunington Beach can be found on the VFR terminal chart

When Over Hunington Beach Pier.

N123AB: “Over Hunington Beach Pier, Cessna 123AB.”.

SOCAL Approach: “Cessna 123AB, contact John Wayne tower 126.80.”

N123AB: “Contact Tower 126.80, Cessna 123AB.”

N123AB: “John Wayne Tower, Cessna 123AB, Over Hunington Beach Pier, Full Stop Landing”

John Wayne Tower: “Cessna 123AB, John Wayne Tower, enter right downwind runway 20 right, report midfield.”

N123AB: “Report midfield right downwind, runway 20 right, Cessna 123AB.”

When on midfield right downwind:

N123AB: “Midfield right downwind Cessna 123AB”

John Wayne Tower: “Cessna 123AB, runway 20 right cleared to land.”

N123AB: “Cleared to land, runway 20 right, Cessna 123AB.”

When clear of the runway.

John Wayne Tower: “Cessna 123AB, contact ground 132.25.”

N123AB: “Contact ground, Cessna 123AB.”

After switching to ground frequency.

N123AB: “John Wayne Ground, Cessna 123AB, clear of runway 20 right at Golf, taxi to transient parking.”

John Wayne Ground: “Cessna 123AB, John Wayne Ground, taxi to parking via bravo.”

N123AB: “Taxi to parking via bravo, Cessna 123AB.”

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